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Ten poradnik opisuje techniki kopiowania/wklejania, edycję węzłów, rysowanie za pomocą ołówka i pióra, manipulowanie ścieżkami, operacje logiczne, odsunięcia, uproszczenia i narzędzie tekstu.

Use Ctrl+arrows,
mouse wheel, or middle
button drag
to scroll the page down. For basics of object creation, selection, and transformation,
see the Basic tutorial in .

Techniki wklejania

After you copy some object(s) by Ctrl+C
or cut by Ctrl+X, the regular
(Ctrl+V) pastes the copied object(s)
right under the mouse cursor or, if the cursor is outside the window, to the center of the document window.
However, the object(s) in the clipboard still remember the original place from which they were copied, and you
can paste back there by

Another command,
applies the style of the (first) object on the clipboard to the current selection. The “style” thus pasted
includes all the fill, stroke, and font settings, but not the shape, size, or parameters specific to a shape
type, such as the number of tips of a star.

Yet another set of paste commands, available from
, scales the selection to match
the desired size attribute of the clipboard object(s). There are a number of commands for pasting size and are
as follows: Size, Width, Height, Size Separately, Width Separately, and Height Separately.

scales the whole selection to match the overall size of the clipboard object(s).
/ scale the whole selection
horizontally/vertically so that it matches the width/height of the clipboard object(s). These commands honor the
scale ratio lock on the Selector Tool controls bar (between W and H fields), so that when that lock is pressed,
the other dimension of the selected object is scaled in the same proportion; otherwise the other dimension is
unchanged. The commands containing “Separately” work similarly to the above described commands, except that
they scale each selected object separately to make it match the size/width/height of the clipboard object(s).

Schowek jest szerokosystemowy, co oznacza, że można kopiować/wklejać obiekty pomiędzy różnymi egzemplarzami Inkscape ‘a, a także pomiędzy Inkscape’em i innymi programami. Jedyny warunek – programy te muszą obsługiwać format SVG.

Rysowanie ścieżek odręcznych i regularnych

The easiest way to create an arbitrary shape is to draw it using the Pencil (freehand) tool

If you want more regular shapes, use the Pen (Bezier) tool (B):

With the Pen tool, each click creates a sharp node without any curve
handles, so a series of clicks produces a sequence of straight line segments.
click and drag creates a
smooth Bezier node with two collinear opposite handles. Press Shift while
dragging out a handle to rotate only one handle and fix the other. As usual,
Ctrl limits the direction of either the current line segment or the Bezier
handles to 15 degree increments. Pressing Enter finalizes the line, Esc
cancels it. To cancel only the last segment of an unfinished line, press Backspace.

Na obu końcach aktualnie zaznaczonej – narysowanej zarówno narzędziem „Ołówek”, jak i „Pióro” – ścieżki, wyświetlane są niewielkie znaczniki w postaci kwadratów. Pozwalają one kontynuować ścieżkę przez dalsze rysowanie linii począwszy od jednego ze znaczników lub zakończyć ją poprzez poprowadzenie linii od jednego znacznika do drugiego.

Edytowanie ścieżek

Unlike shapes created by shape tools, the Pen and Pencil tools create what is called
paths. A path is a sequence of straight line segments and/or Bezier curves which, as any
other Inkscape object, may have arbitrary fill and stroke properties. But unlike a shape, a path can be edited
by freely dragging any of its nodes (not just predefined handles) or by directly dragging a segment of the path.
Select this path and switch to the Node tool (N):

You will see a number of gray square nodes on the path. These nodes can be
selected by click,
Shift+click, or by
dragging a rubberband – exactly like objects are selected by the
Selector tool (including the very similar way to use the Alt key to draw around
the nodes you want to select). You can also click a path segment to automatically select the adjacent nodes.
Selected nodes become highlighted and show their node handles – one or two small circles
connected to each selected node by straight lines. The ! key inverts node selection in the
current subpath(s) (i.e. subpaths with at least one selected node);
Alt+! inverts in the entire path.

Paths are edited by dragging their nodes, node handles, or directly
dragging a path segment. (Try to drag some nodes, handles, and path segments of the above path.)
Ctrl works as usual to restrict movement and rotation. The
arrow keys, Tab, [, ],
<<>, > keys with their modifiers all work just as they do in selector, but
apply to nodes instead of objects. You can add nodes anywhere on a path by either double clicking or by
at the desired location.

You can delete nodes with Del or
When deleting nodes, Inkscape will in most cases try to retain the shape of the path. Only on sharp corners, it
will instead create a straight line. If you want it to always try to preserve the shape, you can use
Ctrl+Del. Additionally, you can
duplicate (Shift+D) selected nodes. The
path can be broken (Shift+B) at the
selected nodes, or if you select two endnodes on one path, you can join them

A node can be made cusp
(Shift+C), which means its two handles
can move independently at any angle to each other; smooth
(Shift+S), which means its handles are
always on the same straight line (collinear); symmetric
(Shift+Y), which is the same as smooth,
but the handles also have the same length; and auto-smooth
(Shift+A), a special node that
automatically adjusts the handles of the node and surrounding auto-smooth nodes to maintain a smooth curve. When
you switch the type of node, you can preserve the position of one of the two handles by hovering your
mouse over it, so that only the other handle is rotated/scaled to match.

Also, you can retract a node’s handle altogether by
Ctrl+clicking on
it. If two adjacent nodes have their handles retracted, the path segment between them is a straight line. To
pull out the retracted node,
away from the node.

Subścieżki i łączenie ścieżek

Ścieżka może zawierać kilka subścieżek. Subścieżka jest sekwencją węzłów połączonych ze sobą. Z tego powodu, jeśli ścieżka posiada więcej niż jedną subścieżkę, nie wszystkie jej węzły są połączone. Położone poniżej, po lewej stronie, trzy subścieżki są częścią pojedynczej, złożonej ścieżki. Takie same trzy subścieżki po prawej są niezależnymi ścieżkami obiektów:

Zauważ, że ścieżka złożona nie jest tym samym co grupa. To pojedynczy obiekt, który można zaznaczyć tylko jako całość. Jeśli zaznaczysz obiekt po lewej stronie i włączysz narzędzie „Edycja węzłów”, zobaczysz, że węzły wyświetlą się na wszystkich trzech subścieżkach. W obiekcie po prawej możesz w tym samym czasie edytować tylko jedną ścieżkę.

Inkscape can paths into a compound path
(Ctrl+K) and a compound path into separate paths
Parts of a path (i.e. a selection of nodes) can also be copied with
Ctrl+C and inserted as a new subpath
(into the same path or a different one) with
Ctrl+V. Try these commands on the above
examples. Since an object can only have one fill and stroke, a new compound path gets the style of the first
(lowest in z-order) object being combined.

When you combine or paste overlapping paths with fill, usually the fill will disappear in the areas where the
paths overlap:

To najłatwiejszy sposób, by tworzyć obiekty z dziurami. Omówienie bardziej zaawansowanych poleceń ścieżek znajduje się w akapicie „Operacje logiczne”.

Przekształcanie w ścieżkę

Any shape or text object can be converted to path
This operation does not change the appearance of the object but removes all capabilities specific to its type
(e.g. you can’t round the corners of a rectangle or edit the text anymore); instead, you can now edit its nodes.
Here are two stars – the left one is kept a shape and the right one is converted to path. Switch to node tool
and compare their editability when selected:

Moreover, you can convert to a path (“outline”) the stroke of any object. Below, the
first object is the original path (no fill, black stroke), while the second one is the result of the
command (black fill, no stroke):

Operacje logiczne

The commands in the menu let you combine two or more objects using boolean

The keyboard shortcuts for these commands allude to the arithmetic analogs of the boolean operations (union is
addition, difference is subtraction, etc.). The and
commands can only apply to two selected objects; others may process any
number of objects at once. The result always receives the style of the bottom object.

The result of the command looks similar to
(see above), but it is different in that
adds extra nodes where the original paths intersect. The difference between
and is that the former cuts the entire bottom object by the path of the top
object, while the latter only cuts the bottom object’s stroke and removes any fill (this is convenient for
cutting fill-less strokes into pieces).

For some common use cases, the menu also contains a few commands that combine multiple
basic Boolean operations into one, to save you some time – and on top, they also keep the color and style of
the objects, unlike the basic operations: splits a path into a set of
non-overlapping sections (so a text-like path would be split into letters),
fractures a set of overlapping paths along every line in any path, and will
remove every part of each overlapping path that is not visible, because it is covered by another path in the

Shape Builder tool

For building up new shapes from multiple paths by using the mouse only, the Shape Builder
tool (X) can be used.

Before you switch to the tool, select some overlapping objects. After you switch to the tool, the canvas will
only show the outlines of the objects that you have selected. Now, the Shape Builder tool can be used to choose
which sections to keep and which to discard.

Click to add a section to the result, or
Shift+click to
remove it to create a hole in its place.
to connect multiple sections to one, or
to remove a contiguous section.

Finally, you can accept or discard the result using one of the buttons in the tool controls bar.

Odsuwanie ścieżki

Inkscape can expand and contract shapes not only by scaling, but also by offsetting an
object’s path, i.e. by displacing it perpendicular to the path in each point. The corresponding commands are
(Ctrl+() and

(Ctrl+)). Shown below is the original
path (red) and a number of paths inset or outset from that original:

The plain and commands produce paths
(converting the original object to path if it’s not a path yet). Often, more convenient is the

(Ctrl+J) which creates an object with a
draggable handle (similar to a shape’s handle) controlling the offset distance. Select the object below, switch
to the node tool, and drag its handle to get an idea:

Takie dynamiczne odsunięcie obiektu zapamiętuje oryginalną ścieżkę, więc nie „zniszczy” jej, kiedy ponownie zmienisz wielkość odsunięcia. Jeżeli nie ma już potrzeby regulowania odsunięcia, można przekształcić odsunięcie obiektu z powrotem w ścieżkę.

Jeszcze wygodniejsze jest odsunięcie połączone, podobne do dynamicznego, ale połączone z inną ścieżką, którą można edytować. Można mieć wiele odsunięć połączonych dla jednej źródłowej ścieżki. W poniższym przykładzie źródłowa ścieżka jest czerwona, jedno połączone z nią odsunięcie posiada czarny kontur i nie jest wypełnione, drugie ma czarne wypełnienie i brak konturu.

Select the red object and node-edit it; watch how both linked offsets respond. Now select any of the offsets and
drag its handle to adjust the offset radius. Finally, notehow you can move or transform the offset objects independently without losing their connection with the source.


The main use of the command
(Ctrl+L) is reducing the number of
nodes on a path while almost preserving its shape. This may be useful for paths created by
the Pencil tool, since that tool sometimes creates more nodes than necessary. Below, the left shape is as
created by the freehand tool, and the right one is a copy that was simplified. The original path has 28 nodes,
while the simplified one has 17 (which means it is much easier to work with in node tool) and is smoother.

The amount of simplification (called the threshold) depends on the size of the selection.
Therefore, if you select a path along with some larger object, it will be simplified more aggressively than if
you select that path alone. Moreover, the command is
accelerated. This means that if you press
Ctrl+L several times in quick
succession (so that the calls are within 0.5 sec from each other), the threshold is increased on each call. (If
you do another Simplify after a pause, the threshold is back to its default value.) By making use of the
acceleration, it is easy to apply the exact amount of simplification you need for each case.

Besides smoothing freehand strokes, can be used for various creative
effects. Often, a shape which is rigid and geometric benefits from some amount of simplification that creates
cool life-like generalizations of the original form – melting sharp corners and introducing very natural
distortions, sometimes stylish and sometimes plain funny. Here’s an example of a clipart shape that looks much
nicer after :

Tworzenie tekstu

Przy pomocy programu Inkscape można tworzyć długie i złożone teksty. Za pomocą Inkscape’a można też bardzo łatwo tworzyć małe obiekty tekstowe, takie jak: nagłówki, banery, logotypy, diagramy, etykiety, podpisy, itp. Ta część poradnika zawiera podstawowe wprowadzenie do funkcji tekstowych Inkscape’a.

Creating a text object is as simple as switching to the Text tool (T), clicking somewhere in
the document, and typing your text. To change font family, style, size, and alignment, open the Text and Font
That dialog also has a text entry tab where you can edit the selected text object – in some situations, it may
be more convenient than editing it right on the canvas (in particular, that tab supports as-you-type spell

Like other tools, Text tool can select objects of its own type – text objects -so you can click to select and
position the cursor in any existing text object (such as this paragraph).

One of the most common operations in text design is adjusting spacing between letters and lines. As always,
Inkscape provides keyboard shortcuts for this. When you are editing text, the
Alt+<<> and
Alt+> keys change the letter
spacing in the current line of a text object, so that the total length of the line changes by 1
pixel at the current zoom (compare to Selector tool where the same keys do pixel-sized object scaling). As a
rule, if the font size in a text object is larger than the default, it will likely benefit from squeezing
letters a bit tighter than the default. Here's an example:

Wariant ze zmniejszonymi odstępami pomiędzy literami wygląda lepiej jako nagłówek, ale wciąż nie jest idealny. Odległości pomiędzy literami nie są jednakowe – na przykład litery „a” i „t” są za daleko od siebie, a „t” i „i” są zbyt blisko. W czcionkach o niskiej jakości liczba złych odstępów – widocznych szczególnie w czcionkach o dużych rozmiarach – jest większa niż w czcionkach o wysokiej jakości. Zapewne w dowolnym ciągu tekstu i dowolnej czcionce znajdziesz pary liter, które zyskają na manipulacji kerningiem.

Inkscape makes these adjustments really easy. Just move your text editing cursor between the offending
characters and use Alt+arrows to move the
letters right of the cursor. Here is the same heading again, this time with manual adjustments for visually
uniform letter positioning:

In addition to shifting letters horizontally by
Alt+Left or
Alt+Right, you can also move them
vertically by using Alt+Up or

Of course you could just convert your text to path
and move the letters as regular path objects. However, it is much more convenient to keep text as text – it
remains editable, you can try different fonts without removing the kerns and spacing, and it takes much less
space in the saved file. The only disadvantage to the “text as text” approach is that you need to have the
original font installed on any system where you want to open that SVG document.

Similar to letter spacing, you can also adjust line spacing in multi-line text objects.
Try the
keys on any paragraph in this tutorial to space it in or out so that the overall height of the text object
changes by 1 pixel at the current zoom. As in Selector, pressing Shift with
any spacing or kerning shortcut produces 10 times greater effect than without Shift.

Inkscape can also create flowed texts: simply click and drag with the text tool to draw a
text box for your text to flow in. To control the flow, use the alignment button in the tool controls bar.

Lastly, there is a third type of text in Inkscape: the column-type text. This text’s
width can be set, while the height is not limited. You can turn any normal, non-flowed text (the one that is
created by only clicking) into a fixed-width text by dragging the handle opposite the text anchor.

Edytor XML

The ultimate power tool of Inkscape is the XML editor
It displays the entire XML tree of the document, always reflecting its current state. You can edit your drawing
and watch the corresponding changes in the XML tree. Moreover, you can edit any text, element, or attribute
nodes in the XML editor and see the result on your canvas. This is the best tool imaginable for learning SVG
interactively, and it allows you to do tricks that would be impossible with regular editing tools.


This tutorial shows only a small part of all capabilities of Inkscape. We hope you enjoyed it. Don’t be afraid
to experiment and share what you create. Please visit inkscape.org for
more information, latest versions, and help from user and developer communities.

Translators: Leszek (teo) Życzkowski (Polski Zespół lokalizacyjny Inkscape)
— 2008; Marcin Florya (Polski Zespół lokalizacyjny Inkscape)
— 2008; Wojciech Szczęsn (Polski Zespół lokalizacyjny Inkscape)
— 2008; Wojciech Ryrych (Polski Zespół lokalizacyjny Inkscape)
— 2008; Piotr Parafiniuk (Polski Zespół lokalizacyjny Inkscape)
— 2008

Header / footer design: Esteban Capella — 2019