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The button is also called pushbutton, tactile button or momentary switch. It is a basic component and widely used in many Arduino projects. It is simple to use. However, it may make the beginners confuse, due to mechanical, physical issues and ways to use it as well. This tutorial makes it easy for the beginners.
Button usually have four pins.
However, these pins are internally connected in pairs. Therefore, we only need to use two of the four pins, which are NOT internally connected.
There are four ways (actually two ways because of symmetry) to connect to button (see image)
We can use only two pins of a button, why does it have four pins?
⇒ To make it stand firmly in PCB (board) to resist the pressing force.
When the button is NOT pressed, pin A is NOT connected to pin B
When the button is pressed, pin A is connected to pin B
One button’s pin is connected to VCC or GND. The other pin is connected to an Arduino pin.
By reading the state of Arduino’s pin (configured as input pin), we can detect the button is pressed or NOT.
The relation between the button state and the pressing state depends on how we connect the button with Arduino and the setting of the Arduino’s pin.
There are two ways to use a button with Arduino:
One button’s pin is connected to VCC, the other is connected to an Arduino’s pin with a pull-down resistor
If the button is pressed, Arduino’s pin state is HIGH. If otherwise, Arduino’s pin state is LOW
We MUST use an external resistor.
One button’s pin is connected to GND, the other is connected to an Arduino’s pin with a pull-up resistor
If the button is pressed, Arduino’s pin state is LOW. If otherwise, Arduino’s pin state is HIGH
We can use either an internal or external resistor. The internal resistor is built inside Arduino, we just need to set via Arduino code.
※ NOTE THAT:
If we do NOT use neither pull-down nor pull-up resistor, the state of the input pin is “floating” when the button is NOT pressed. It means the state can be HIGH or LOW (unstable, unfixed), resulting in the wrong detection.
The worst practice: initializes the Arduino pin as an input (by using pinMode(BUTTON_PIN, INPUT)) and does NOT use any external pull-down/pull-up resistor.
The best practice: initializes the Arduino pin as an internal pull-up input (by using pinMode(BUTTON_PIN, INPUT_PULLUP)). It does NOT need to use any external pull-down/pull-up resistor.
To make it easy for beginners, this tutorial uses the simplest method: initializes the Arduino pin as an internal pull-up input without using the external resistor. The beginners do NOT need to care about how to wire the pull-up/pull-down resistor. The beginners just need to use the Arduino code.